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Data Center SDN: Compare VMware NSX, Cisco ACI and Open SDN
news
2020-09-16 14:17
Classification:
News
Data Center SDN: Compare VMware NSX, Cisco ACI and Open SDN
A brief history of PON
news
2020-09-08 10:51
Classification:
News
01. EPON and GPON The story starts with the origin of PON. In the 1980s, with the rise of computer and multimedia technologies, more and more people began to own computers and began to contact the Internet (local area network or the Internet). As a result, data communication services began to rise, and the demand for Internet access emerged. In the early days, Internet services provided by operators were basically copper cables such as telephone lines, twisted pair (network cables), and coaxial cables. Technologies include ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) and ISDN dedicated line (Integrated Services Digital Network). ADSL Modem These methods are either very slow or costly, and cannot meet the needs of users. As a result, optical fiber, as a new communication medium, began to enter people's field of vision. Optical fiber Since Mr. Gao Kun, a Chinese scientist in 1966, established the theoretical foundation of optical fiber communication through a paper, this technology has entered a stage of rapid development. The optical fiber manufacturing process continues to mature, and the industrial chain is increasingly taking shape. In the late 1980s, in order to apply optical fiber to broadband access services, manufacturers successively introduced their own narrowband PON technology. At that time, the speed of this technology was very low, not exceeding 2Mbps. Moreover, because manufacturers are fighting each other, there has been no unified norms and standards. In 1995, seven network operators including BELLSOUTH, BT, and France Telecom jointly initiated the establishment of the Full Service Access Network Alliance (FSAN), hoping to propose a unified optical access network equipment standard. Soon after, in 1997, in accordance with the FSAN's recommendation, ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunications Standards Branch) introduced the APON technology system, which is the G.983.1 standard. APON is ATM PON. ATM is not an automatic teller machine, it is an abbreviation of Asynchronous Transfer Mode. The essence of ATM is a transmission protocol. The older generation of communication people must be familiar with ATM. It used to be a competitor of the IP protocol and was once very popular. In 2001, FSAN and ITU-T upgraded and revised the APON specification, and by the way changed its name to BPON (Broadband PON, broadband passive optical network). The reason for the name change is that they do not want APON to be misunderstood as only providing ATM services. In order to further improve the PON rate standard, in 2002, FSAN started a new work to standardize PON networks above 1Gbps. In March 2003, on the basis of FSAN's proposal, ITU-T promulgated the G.984 standard, which is GPON (Gigabit-capable PON, Gigabit Passive Optical Network). While FSAN and ITU-T were doing enthusiastically, another standardization organization was not idle, and started to play PON technology. It is the same famous IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). IEEE is the creator and backer of the Ethernet standard. After the IEEE released the Gigabit Ethernet standard in 1998, it was thinking about developing a PON standard based on Ethernet. In 2000, IEEE established the EFM working group and officially launched related standardization work. The full name of the EFM working group is very interesting. It is called the Ethernet for the First Mile (Ethernet for the First Mile), which belongs to the IEEE 802.3 group that develops Ethernet standards. In April 2004, the EFM working group was completed and officially launched the IEEE 802.3ah standard, which is EPON (Ethernet PON, PON based on Ethernet). With the passage of time, ATM has gradually lost its momentum in the competition with IP. APON (BPON) has also been abandoned by operators due to cost, efficiency and other reasons, and has withdrawn from the stage of history. Therefore, I won't introduce APON (BPON) more, and you don't need to know too much. We will focus on EPON and GPON, which have become the mainstream of the industry at that time. EPON and GPON are different technical systems launched by different standards organizations. There is no relationship of upgrading, evolution or substitution between the two, which can be regarded as parallel development. The key difference between EPON and GPON lies in the second layer (that is, the data link layer). EPON, at the second layer, replaces ATM with Ethernet. GPON uses a newly defined encapsulation structure GEM (GPON Encapsulation Mode, GPON encapsulation mode) at the second layer to encapsulate and map multiple services such as Ethernet, TDM, and ATM. In short, EPON and GPON have their own advantages and disadvantages. Simply put, GPON has larger bandwidth, more users, and higher efficiency, but it is also more complicated to implement, so the cost is higher.
5G Time-Frequency Dual Convergence to Meet the Challenges of 3.5GHz Network Deployment
news
2020-09-02 15:00
Classification:
News
Spectrum is the core resource in the field of mobile communications. The 5G spectrum is scattered in multiple frequency bands, and different frequency bands have their own advantages and disadvantages. The world's first commercial 5G network mainly uses higher 3.5GHz (3.3~3.8GHz, band n78) and millimeter wave frequency bands, and 2.6GHz (2.496~2.69GHz, band n41) frequency bands. The 3.5GHz frequency band adopts the TDD mode. Compared with the 1.8GHz (band 3) and other FDD frequency bands commonly used in the current 4G network, 3.5GHz not only has higher penetration loss, but also has a smaller proportion of available uplink time slots, which is suitable for 5G services. In terms of demand, there are three major challenges in uplink bandwidth, uplink coverage, and transmission delay.
5G provides stronger power for deep empowerment of vertical industries
news
2020-08-28 14:46
Classification:
News
For the first time, 5G has shifted the focus of service to vertical industries. From the beginning of 5G development, the industry has reached a consensus on the application scenarios that 5G needs to cover, including enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), low-cost and low-power large-scale Connection (mMTC), ultra-high reliability and ultra-low latency communication (URLLC). For the above application scenarios, ITU-R and 3GPP have defined the corresponding performance requirements in detail, for example, 20Gbps peak data rate, 0.5ms air interface transmission delay, 3 to 5 times higher spectrum efficiency than 4G, gigabit per square kilometer Connection density, 10Tbps service density per square kilometer, and 100 times power efficiency improvement. In order to maintain the sustainable development of the entire ecosystem, we expect 5G to have extremely low-cost characteristics, and the cost per bit can be increased by 1,000 times.
China Mobile Unicom joins SD-RAN project to accelerate the development of Open RAN
news
2020-08-28 14:39
Classification:
News
The SD-RAN project is supported by leading operators and alliance technology companies and organizations, who work together to create a true Open RAN ecosystem. The founding members of the project include AT&T, China Mobile, China Unicom, Deutsche Telekom, Facebook, Google, Intel, NTT, Radisys and Sercomm.
SEEKER’s ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 Certification Renewed
news
2020-08-10 11:30
Classification:
News
SEEKER is very pleased to announce that our ISO 9001:2020 and ISO 14001:2020 have been renewed following our recent 2020 audit.
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